Selenium is regarded as the most well-known and advanced framework for web automation testing. Due to its position as one of the best automation frameworks and its constantly expanding capabilities, it is well-positioned to dominate the industry in all respects compared to other popular frameworks like Puppeteer, Cypress, PlayWright, etc.
Additionally, Selenium automation testing enables the expert to work on a wide range of web browsers, operating systems, and programming languages, including Ruby, C#, Java, Perl, and Python.
Selenium has undergone substantial growth and development from its beginnings to the present. Selenium 4 is the latest and most updated version. It has many new features to make programming easier, faster, and more efficient.
Selenium WebDriver is the tool that will get you to the greatest possible start if you’re just beginning with automation. It provides you with everything you need to begin your Selenium automation journey off to a good start.
Elements and Building Blocks of Selenium
Selenium allows testers to create test scripts that can automatically run tests on web applications. These scripts are capable of carrying out tasks like clicking buttons, completing forms, and navigating across websites.
The Selenium WebDriver component of the Selenium suite enables users to control a web browser through a program. It provides a simple application programming interface (API) that enables testers to interact with web browsers in a way that simulates what a genuine user would experience. Using Selenium WebDriver, you may automate several processes, such as button clicks, form submissions, and page navigation.
In a word, Selenium is an automated testing framework for web browsers, and Selenium WebDriver is a Selenium component that enables users to control a web browser through a program.
With the Selenium tool package, users may create automated tests for web applications in several different programming languages. The Selenium Suite comprises the Selenium IDE, WebDriver, and Selenium Grid. All of these parts facilitate browser automation in many ways.
Let’s have a look at them:
The Selenium IDE is a Firefox browser extension that helps create automated web application testing. It was created as an alternative to testing scripts written in various computer languages and is a Selenium Project product. Selenium IDE differs from its predecessors in that it is a recording tool rather than a tool that generates code. This allows automation testers to create scripts in any language that the Selenium WebDriver API supports.
Testers can record their actions with the help of web applications, then replay them as needed. Selenium IDE generates thorough reports for the tests that have been recorded, enabling testers to monitor the results of their tests and enhance their test scripts.
Selenium WebDriver is one of the most efficient tools for web applications. Selenium WebDriver communicates directly with the browser and avoids any middlemen, unlike Selenium RC (Remote Control), which depends on a server to function.
Some of the most significant attributes of Selenium WebDriver are listed below:
- Numerous browsers, including Mozilla Safari, Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer, are compatible with Selenium WebDriver.
- The Selenium WebDriver performs significantly better than the Selenium RC in speed.
- The commands used by Selenium WebDriver are simple to comprehend and execute.
Selenium Grid is in charge of the distribution and management of WebDriver. It consists of numerous nodes communicating with one another to distribute, discover and manage tests in different environments.
The Selenium Grid’s infrastructure has been redesigned in the recent Selenium 4 releases. The Grid may operate in three modes: hub-and-node, standalone, and fully distributed. The Selenium Grid is the main tool for running several tests simultaneously. Selenium allows for simultaneous testing across a wide range of operating systems and numerous browsers.
Why is Selenium best for Automated Testing?
Now that we are aware of what Selenium is, let’s learn more about the various benefits of utilizing Selenium WebDriver, which set it apart from other automation testing solutions and help it stand out from the competition:
- Selenium has a competitive edge over other test automation solutions because it is free and open-source and does not require a license to use it.
- Selenium can meet the needs of any user because it has a wide range of tools. You can employ various solutions, including Selenium Grid, Selenium WebDriver, and Selenium IDE, to satisfy your diverse requirements.
- Selenium works with many browsers, including Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Edge, Safari, and others. Its versatility is enhanced because it works with many operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Mac.
- Selenium’s vibrant and welcoming community can help you with any issues or inquiries about the program. It is, therefore, the best choice for usage as your automation testing tool.
Furthermore, you may run Selenium tests in the cloud. Many cloud based automation testing platforms, like LambdaTest that don’t require installing the program on your computer locally, let you access Selenium Grid. These platforms eliminate manual Selenium Grid installation and configuration because they are hosted in the cloud. Additionally, they enable you to move between several different browsers and make it simple to run tests concurrently.
Pre-requisites for installation and configuration for Selenium WebDriver
Selenium is a framework for testing web applications automatically that has become very popular recently. A browser-based automation framework streamlines the testing procedure by automating various tasks. The range of browsers that Selenium is compatible with includes Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, and others.
As a result, it can be used to test a product’s functional and non-functional characteristics. By offering application programming interfaces (APIs) and extensions for the great majority of programming languages, Selenium also enables the automation of online applications.
The pre-requisites for integrating Selenium into the automation project you are working on are the installation of the Selenium WebDriver binaries for the browsers you need to test in and the language bindings libraries for the programming language.
The configuration of Selenium to function with Eclipse will be explained in the following section.
Here is the list of pre-requisites for installation and configuration of Selenium WebDriver for automation testing.
Install and download Java to get started:
You can find and download the Java version that best suits your requirements. If you want to install it on a Windows machine, select the Windows x64 Installer JDK from the list.
- To start the procedure, you should visit the official website of Java.
- Use the “Download” option to get the most recent Java version that works with your computer’s operating system.
- Launch the installed file you downloaded to begin the process when the download is complete.
- To properly complete the installation, strictly adhere to the instructions.
- After the installation, launch a command prompt or terminal window, and then type “java -version.” You can use this to verify if Java was set up correctly. If everything goes according to plan, this should show the Java version currently installed on your computer.
- You might need to install JDK rather than JRE to accomplish some tasks or utilize specific programs.
Now go ahead to set up all Environment Variables:
You must set up the Java path on your machine after you have finished the installation.
Step 1: Open the settings menu on your computer and choose the Advanced system settings option from the system dialog box.
Step 2: From the drop-down option, choose the environment variable.
Step 3: Select Path from System Variables, then click Edit. Click the Save button after selecting the entire path to Java.
Step 4: You may find out if Java is already installed on your machine by launching the command line i.e Java -version.
Your system’s Java installation process is now complete.
Step 5: The WebDriver languages Bindings and the Selenium Client should be downloaded and installed from the website.
To access the downloaded folder in the future, you can select where it is extracted.
For Selenium WebDriver, download and install Eclipse
The Eclipse integrated development environment (IDE), which is free and open-source, is frequently used to create Java applications. It is a popular choice among Java programmers due to its wide range of features, including a code editor, debugging tools, and a built-in compiler.
Follow these steps to download and set up Eclipse:
- Download Eclipse by visiting the official Eclipse program website.
- Select the Eclipse version that works with the operating system of your machine.
- After the download, you must unzip the archive before extracting the data to a location on your computer.
- The user’s setup of their Workspace comes next. Workspace will save your test scripts, test results, and other related data.
- Click the Launch button will take you to the finished Eclipse installation.
How do you start developing your Selenium test scripts in Eclipse, and how do you get going?
Please make sure to finish the following procedures before starting to develop your test scripts:
1. Launch Eclipse and Workspace
Double-click the eclipse.exe file you installed in the previous step to run it. You can choose the Workspace as well.
2. Start a new project in Eclipse.
Let’s get started by generating our first Project in the Workspace. To start a new project, simply choose “File” > “New” > “Project.”
3. Devise a new package
Create a new package that fits the Project’s requirements. If you want to create a package, right-click the Project menu and choose “New” then “Package.”
Create a new class that is included in the package specified above.
A new class can be created by right-clicking the Package node and choosing New > Class from the context menu. Create class.
Now enter Selenium Webdriver Jar files in the Project
The next step follows the addition of Selenium JAR files. You can right-click the Project icon to open the properties menu. Click the Add External JARs button after selecting the directory where Java will be produced.
By selecting Project> Properties > Java Build Path, you can include external JARs in your Project.
You are now ready to execute your very first script.
The above tutorial describes the installation of Selenium and setting it up to work with Eclipse in a detailed version. Selenium can be configured using other integrated development environments (IDEs),. Eclipse configuration, usage, and the creation of new projects and classes have all been covered.
Selenium has over 60% of the global market share of all other frameworks because it is open source. The above tutorial will allow you to set up and configure the Selenium automation testing environment effectively.